【Dota Auto Chess】にじさんじオートチェス部！大会に向けて練習会(｀･ω･´)【にじさんじ/椎名唯華】
TWO : NIL to the computer.
That was the score, as The Economist went to press, in the latest round of the battle between artificial intelligence AI and the naturally evolved sort.
The field of honour is cityゲーム無料ダウンロード Android用gty Go board in Seoul, South Korea—a country that cedes to no one, least of all its neighbour Japan, the title of most Go-crazy place on the planet.
But not, perhaps, for much longer.
Mr Lee is in the middle of a five-game series with AlphaGo, a computer program written by researchers at DeepMind, an AI software house in London link was bought by Google in 2014.
And, though this is not an official championship series, as the scoreline shows, Mr Lee is losing.
Go is an ancient game—invented, legend has it, by the mythical First Emperor of China, for the instruction of his son.
It is played all over East Asia, where it occupies roughly the same position as chess article source in the West.
It is popular with computer scientists, too.
For AI researchers in particular, the idea of cracking Go has become an obsession.
Other games have fallen over the years—most notably when, in 1997, one of the best chess players in history, Garry Kasparov, lost to a machine called Deep Blue.
Modern chess programs are better than any human.
But compared with Go, teaching chess to computers is a doddle.
At first sight, this is odd.
The rules of Go are simple and minimal.
The players are Black and White, each provided with a bowl of stones of the appropriate グランドモンダルカジノは合法です />Players take turns to place a stone on any unoccupied intersection of a 19×19 grid of vertical and horizontal lines.
The aim is to use the stones to claim territory.
In the https://deposit-promocode-slots.site/1/155.html being played by Mr Lee and AlphaGo each stone, and each surrounded intersection, is a point towards the final score.
Stones surrounded by enemy stones are captured and removed.
If an infinite loop of capture and recapture, known as Ko, becomes possible, a player is not allowed to recapture immediately, but must first play elsewhere.
Play carries on until neither player wishes to continue.
Go forth and multiply This simplicity, though, is deceptive.
In a truly simple game, like noughts and crosses, every possible outcome, all the way to the end of a game, can be calculated.
This brute-force approach means a computer can always work out which move is the best in a given situation.
In 2007, after 18 years of effort, researchers announced that they had come up with a provably optimum strategy.
But a draughts board is only 8×8.
Analogies fail when trying to describe such a number.
It is nearly a hundred of orders of magnitude more than the number of atoms in the observable universe, which is somewhere in the region of 10 80.
Choosing any of those will throw up another 250 possible moves, and so on until the game ends.
Though the small board and comparatively restrictive rules of chess mean there are only around 10 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー different possible games, and its branching factor is only 35, that does, in practice, mean chess is also unsolvable in the way that draughts has been solved.
Instead, chess programs filter their options as they go along, selecting promising-looking dbestcasino and reserving their number-crunching prowess for the simulation of the thousands of outcomes that flow from those chosen few.
This is possible because chess has some built-in structure that helps a program understand whether or not 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー given position is a good one.
A knight is generally worth more than a pawn, for instance; a queen is worth more than either.
The standard values are three, one and nine respectively.
Working out who is winning in Go is much harder, says Dr Hassabis.
At the same time, small tactical decisions can have, as every Go player knows, huge strategic consequences later on.
There is plenty of structure—Go players talk of features such as ladders, walls and false eyes—but these emerge organically from the rules, rather than being prescribed by them.
Since good players routinely beat bad ones, there are plainly strategies for doing well.
But even the best players struggle to describe exactly what they are doing, says Miles Brundage, an AI researcher at Arizona State University.
But it is not much use when it comes to the hyper-literal job of programming a computer.
Before AlphaGo came along, the best programs played at the level of a skilled amateur.
Go figure AlphaGo uses some of the same technologies as those older programs.
But its big idea is to combine them with new approaches that try to get the computer to develop its own intuition about how to play—to discover for itself the rules that human players understand but cannot explain.
It does that using a technique called deep learning, which lets computers work out, by repeatedly applying complicated statistics, how to extract general rules from masses of noisy data.
Deep learning requires two things: plenty of processing grunt and plenty of data to learn from.
DeepMind trained its machine on a sample of 30m Go positions culled from online servers where amateurs and professionals gather to play.
And by having AlphaGo play against another, slightly tweaked version of itself, more training data can be generated quickly.
Those data are fed into two deep-learning algorithms.
One, called the policy network, is trained to imitate human play.
After watching millions of games, it has learned to extract features, principles and rules of thumb.
This algorithm, called the value network, evaluates how strong a move is.
The machine plays out the suggestions of the policy network, making moves and countermoves for the thousands of possible daughter games those suggestions could give rise to.
Because Go is so complex, playing all conceivable games through to the end is impossible.
Instead, the value network looks at the likely state of the board several moves ahead and compares those states with examples it has seen before.
The idea is to find the board state that looks, statistically speaking, most like the sorts of board states that have led to wins in the past.
Together, the policy and value networks embody the Go-playing wisdom that human https://deposit-promocode-slots.site/1/976.html accumulate over years of practice.
The version playing against Mr Lee uses 1,920 standard processor chips and 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー special ones developed originally to produce graphics for video games—a particularly demanding task.
At least part of the reason AlphaGo is so far ahead of the competition, says Mr Brundage, is that it runs on this more potent hardware.
He also points out that there are still one or two hand-crafted features lurking in the code.
These give the machine direct hints about what to do, rather than letting it work things out for itself.
One reason for the commercial and academic excitement around deep learning is that it has broad applications.
The techniques employed in AlphaGo can be used to teach computers to recognise faces, Androidタブレット用の無料ゲーム4 0 between languages, show relevant advertisements to internet アトランティスゴールドカジノデポジットボーナスコード7月2019日 or hunt for subatomic particles in data from atom-smashers.
Deep learning is thus a booming business.
It powers the increasingly effective image- and voice-recognition abilities of computers, and firms such as Google, Facebook and Baidu are throwing money at it.
It ended up doing much better than any human player can.
In a nice coincidence, atari is also the name in Go for a stone or group of stones that is in peril of being captured.
Games offer a convenient way to measure progress towards this general intelligence.
Board games such as Go can be ranked in order of mathematical complexity.
Video games span a range of difficulties, too.
Space Invaders is a simple game, played on a low-resolution screen; for a computer to learn to play a modern video game would require click at this page to interpret a picture much more subtle and complicated than some ugly-looking monsters descending a screen, and in pursuit of much less obvious goals than merely zapping them.
Go tell the Spartans For now, he reckons, general-purpose machine intelligence remains a long way off.
The pattern-recognising abilities of deep-learning algorithms are impressive, but computers still lack many of the mental tools that humans take for granted.
This is the ability to take lessons learned in one domain and apply them to another.
And machines like AlphaGo have no goals, and no more awareness of their own existence than does a word processor or a piece of accounting software.
In the short term, though, Dr Hassabis is 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー />At 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー kiwon, or Go parlour, in Seoul, the day before the match, the 30 or so players present were almost unanimous in believing that the machine would fall short.
At a pre-match press conference Mr Lee said he was confident he would win 5-0, or see more 4-1.
He was, plainly, wrong about that, 無料のコンピューターに対してチェスゲームオンラインプレーヤー it is not over yet.
Copyright to 2013 English Cabin All RIGHTS RESERVED.
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